Public Administration and Teaching – Papers, Bergen 2012

Conference theme: Public Administration and Reforms in times of crisis

The Impact of the Arab Spring: on Executive Education and Training Programs in Egypt

Dina Wafa, Phd,
The American University in Cairo,
Egypt

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The purpose of the current research paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs.
The main research question is: How can public administration programs partner in building a new Egypt and maintain reasonable revenue generated? The main research question has been broken into a number of investigative questions, as follows:
– What was the impact of the transition period in Egypt and the region on public administration teaching strategies?
– What innovative practices were introduced?
– How was funding maintained in critical times?
– How did the transition affect the participation in programs?
– How have participants’ needs changed with the transition?
– What are possible areas for improvement and lessons learnt for the future?

Bridging the language-culture gap in providing continuing training for Chinese civil servants: Elements from a French experience

Emil Turc, Robert Fouchet,
Université d’Aix-Marseille,
France

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In this paper we comment the educational challenges and solutions implemented for successfully carrying out the training program. Indeed, the former had been numerous in spite of the detailed negotiation of the program with Chinese authorities (amongst specific requirements: one-year English training before admission to the program, teaching with cases, organizing commented visits of French public administrations and governments, one-month internships for each participant in public organizations, tutoring, etc.). The main difficulties revolved around English as a media of study, the need of rapidly exploring the configuration and culture of the French public sector, cultural differences (i.e. the perception of instructorstudent relations), student adjustments to French and English speaking public organizations providing internships, and not the least, the year-long living in an alien social environment and away from family.

The groups were composed of experienced high civil servants (at least ten years in management positions), with an average age of 37, a balanced male-female make up, married, and predominantly parents of young children.

Coordination within the field of accreditation of the Flemish higher education

Silke Ruebens MSc,
Public Management Institute,
Belgium

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Since the Lisbon Strategy there has been growing attention for quality assurance of education. Together with the impact of New Public Management, the field of quality assurance of education has changed dramatically. There is an increased need for quality control to ensure the quality, efficiency and effectiveness. To respond to this need, accreditation is used as official declaration of quality of a program or an institution. Because of the growing use of accreditation there is a trend towards specialization and proliferation of organizations in the field of quality assurance. Though the question remains how this growing number of organizations are coordinated in order to avoid fragmentation which could hinder the effectiveness and efficiency of these organizations. This paper focuses on the mechanisms of coordination (hierarchy, market or network) that are  sed within the field of accreditation of the higher education. The research questions are: (1) To what extent does the field of accreditation in the Flemish higher education experience a need to coordinate?
(2) What mechanisms of coordination are used in the growing field of accreditation of the Flemish higher education? The article concludes that in field of accreditation of the Flemish higher education mainly the hierarchy mechanism is used for the coordination. However, when looking at the European context, also the market and network mechanism becomes more visible. The conclusion of this article wants to highlight the risks associated with the use of a market mechanism and especially the price quality ratio in the field of quality assurance.

Public Administration as Compassion

Prof. em. Dr. Arthur Ringeling,
Erasmus University Rotterdam,
The Netherlands

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In my paper for the meeting of the PSG IX of 2011 (Ringeling, 2011) I brought forward that modern Public Administration1 seems to have lost insights that are crucial for the discipline. I related that to the dominance of the Anglo-Saxon model of public administration. The attention for law and for politics has diminished.
These phenomena are considered as external factors for the subject matter. No longer is the democratic Rechtsstaat considered as crucial for as well the object of study as for the way the discipline developed. Effectiveness and efficiency have
become central values for governing public affairs. Public Administration became a technical discipline, abstaining from other values than the mentioned economic ones.
In this paper I will elaborate one aspect of this theme. What if I’m right that Public Administration is more than an organizational or management science for the public sector. What are the consequences for the discipline? How do we realize the ambitions of our discipline? And what is our attitude towards the problems governments and public organizations struggle in practice? How do we study and research public administration? How do we advise and how do we teach, giving the characteristics of the field and the ambitions of the discipline? That are the questions on which this chapter focusses.
The topic is all but a new one. But it has new relevance giving the development of Public Administration in recent decades. The pragmatic tradition had consequences for the way the discipline positioned itself with regard to the public administration practice. In particular in the study of public policy, the theme was discussed intensively. In Lasswell’s view, public policy studies had to be problem-oriented, contextual and normative. That had consequences for the policy sciences. Does it have also for Public Administration and which consequences are that?

Public administration accreditation in Central Europe: does it support quality improvements?

Prof. Dr. Juraj Nemec, Witold Mikulowski PhD, Prof. Dr. Stanka Setnikar Cankar, Veronika Petkovsek, David Spacek,
High School of Banking,
Poland

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Our previous research (papers presented at EGPA conferences 2010 and 2011, forthcoming paper in Public Management Review) about public management education in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) indicated several problems connected with the quality of public administration higher education in the region. We tried to investigate purposes for the situation when only very few schools comply with international standards (see also results of accreditation processes realized by the European Association for Public Administration Accreditation – EAPAA). One of factors identified was the system of national accreditation in higher education in CEE. This paper focuses on this aspect and is based on four country studies – Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. Our research was supported by the GACR project P403/12/0366: Identification and evaluation of the region specific factors determining success of NPM reforms – CEE region.

From OJT to ENA? Searching for a Public Servants Teaching and Training Model in Japan

Prof. Dr. Hiroko Kudo,
Chuo University,
Japan

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The paper first describes the current situation of Japanese civil services, describing related numbers and features and explaining social, economic, and demographic situation in change. Then the second part would describe the historical and current human resource development of civil services, focusing on the training by National Personnel Authority and by other institutions.
The main part of the paper explains the recent civil service reform and two proposals by National Personnel Authority: one on recruitment and selection system; the other on civil service training system. Finally the paper tries to conclude with the most challenging question: how to cope with the changing competences with capacity building.

Excellence in Public Administration Teaching and Learning: Lessons from the South

Prof. Dr. Hendri Kroukamp,
University of the Free State,
South Africa

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The various changes created by inter alia globalisation and irrelevant primary and secondary education in the public sector necessitate that institutions of higher learning critically access their strategies to deliver public servants with the appropriate skills to address these changes and challenges emanating from it. In order to improve the poor throughput rate of public servants, particular adjustments need to be made to the method of instruction. In this article it is proposed that a paradigm shift from teaching to learning should take place with the implication that public servants will be able to carry out their jobs effectively leading to better services once they are employed in the public sector.

Using teaching objects in interactive teaching of public administration

John Alford, Jonathan Brock,
University of Melbourne,
Australia

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It is now well-established that interactive education – in which students are encouraged to participate in discussion with the teacher and each other – facilitates greater engagement and deeper learning than traditional lecture monologues. One of the most common forms of interactive teaching – especially in professional fields such as business management or public administration – is case discussion, which is now ubiquitous in business schools around the world, and is establishing a place in schools of public policy and administration. Its openended nature poses challenges for teachers accustomed to exercising control in more didactic approaches.

With an initial overview of the nature and rationale of interactive teaching and learning as a backdrop, this paper argues firstly that case discussion is only one form of interactive teaching, and that the case study is only one form (albeit an important one) of what we will call ‘teaching objects’. A teaching object is anything which is set up to constitute or prompt the subject matter of an interactive teaching session. There is a wide range of possible objects in addition to cases, such as: a set of mini-case cameos; an extract from a book; an official document; a newspaper clipping; some video footage; an experience such as a role play or exercise; and so on. What makes them objects is that they have been chosen and unveiled, and are discussed with students, with particular teaching purposes, concepts and processes in mind. In this paper, we will describe teaching objects and their working mechanisms and explain their educational rationale, especially in interactive education.

Secondly, the paper proposes ways in which hitherto more didactic teachers can, in using objects to stimulate discussion, deal with the risk implicit in interactive teaching of losing direct control of discussion in the classroom – in particular, through the effective alignment of teaching objects with educational objectives and with a teaching structure that supports theuse of the discussion object selected.

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